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The author provides an excellent, concise, and informative description of literary history and discourse in the twentieth century by disassociating new school martial arts wuxia fiction of the twentieth-century from its pre-modern predecessor, xiayi fiction, and situating it historically in opposition to the nationalist May Fourth literary tradition. The analysis carves out space for martial arts fiction in the modern literary critical canon, which has prioritized the intellectualism of May Fourth literature and too often scorned such popular fiction in the discourse of modernization. That dismissive view ignores the literary qualities of martial arts texts, most of which are written in a semi-literary Chinese that requires a literacy level beyond the vernacular. Marshaling these and other arguments, Liu’s introduction argues for the value of the martial arts genre in contemporary Chinese culture, noting the still-valid currency of the language and myths drawn therefrom.